Oman: al-Ghafiriyah and al-Hinawiyah Tribal Confederations - ..ٌ::ٌ:: النسابون العرب ::ٌ::ٌ..
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إضافة رد
قديم 17-08-2019, 10:31 PM   رقم المشاركة :[1]
معلومات العضو
عضو مجلس الأدارة, المشرفة العامة لمجالس قبائل الخليج العربي
 
أحصائيات العضو

علم الدولة : علم الدولة none

افتراضي Oman: al-Ghafiriyah and al-Hinawiyah Tribal Confederations

the considerable amount of time required to
inform other areas of events and to assemble
conventions of notables or armies. The tribes
of one province generally had little to do with
tribes of another, even those from their own
confederation. Indeed, some of the provinces
were so isolated that they were rarely active in
Omani politics, as in the case of the Ru’us al-
Jibal and Dhufar. Others were geographically
vulnerable to outside influences and thus their
inhabitants tended to shy away from
involvement in Omani tribal politics, as in al-
Batinah and al-Dhahirah.



The province was thus in many ways a
microcosm of the political system for the
country as a whole. The Ghafiri-Hinawi
struggle was therefore replicated on the
provincial level: the role of the Imam would
frequently be assumed by the tamimah of a
dominant tribe, such as the tamimah of the
Hirth in al-Sharqiyah province. The rivalry
assured stability in most provinces: neither
side commanded enough resources to warrant
waging war against the other. It was a rare
occasion when local or tribal disputes
embroiled an entire province. More often, the
threat of partisan response predisposed tribes
to settle their disputes through recourse to
mediation and acceptance of blood money.
The physical effects of the dichotomy are
most readily seen in the settlement patterns of
the larger towns and wadis. These are
generally divided into two separate parts:
‘alayah (upper) and sifalah (lower), each
controlled by one faction. Prominent examples
of this development are in Nizwa – where
Ghafiri tribes, such as the Bani Riyam and the
Kunud, dominate al-‘Alayah and Hinawi
tribes, such as the Bani Hina and the Al Bu
Sa‘id, are found in al-Sifalah – and Sama’il,
where the settled area of Wadi Sama’il, which
is abundantly watered and cultivated, actually
consists of two towns separated by
approximately five miles, the upper inhabited
by the Hinawi Bani Ruwahah and the lower
largely by the Ghafiri Siyabiyin.
Primarily a religious figure and it was
necessary for any candidate for the office to
possess the necessary religious qualifications
– even to the point of neglecting political
criteria to be elected. Even Ghalib b. ‘Ali al-
Hina’i, elected in 1954, possessed the
essential religious qualifications, which
included long service as a qadi in al-Rustaq
and Nizwa, followed by administration of the
imamate’s bayt al-mal (public treasury).
Nevertheless, his political credentials were
lacking and he proved to be easily
manipulated by his brother Talib and the Bani
Riyam tamimah, Sulayman b. Himyar al-
Nabhani.

Even more important than these Ghafiri-
Hinawi interactions on the country-wide level
is their effect on the province. This is
principally because Omani provinces possess
natural limitations and are not artificially
created to serve political purposes.
Geography, in the form of mountains and
deserts, has dictated that the primary focus of
political attention has been the immediate
area. Wider involvement was discouraged by
the considerable amount of time required to
inform other areas of events and to assemble
conventions of notables or armies. The tribes
of one province generally had little to do with
tribes of another, even those from their own
confederation. Indeed, some of the provinces
were so isolated that they were rarely active in
Omani politics, as in the case of the Ru’us al-
Jibal and Dhufar. Others were geographically
vulnerable to outside influences and thus their
inhabitants tended to shy away from
involvement in Omani tribal politics, as in al-
Batinah and al-Dhahirah.

The province was thus in many ways a
microcosm of the political system for the
country as a whole. The Ghafiri-Hinawi
struggle was therefore replicated on the
provincial level: the role of the Imam would
frequently be assumed by the tamimah of a
dominant tribe, such as the tamimah of the
Hirth in al-Sharqiyah province. The rivalry
assured stability in most provinces:
neither side commanded enough resources to warrant
waging war against the other. It was a rare
occasion when local or tribal disputes
embroiled an entire province. More often, the
threat of partisan response predisposed tribes
to settle their disputes through recourse to
mediation and acceptance of blood money.

The physical effects of the dichotomy are
most readily seen in the settlement patterns of
the larger towns and wadis. These are
generally divided into two separate parts:
‘alayah (upper) and sifalah (lower), each
controlled by one faction. Prominent examples
of this development are in Nizwa – where
Ghafiri tribes, such as the Bani Riyam and the
Kunud, dominate al-‘Alayah and Hinawi
tribes, such as the Bani Hina and the Al Bu
Sa‘id, are found in al-Sifalah – and Sama’il,
where the settled area of Wadi Sama’il, which
is abundantly watered and cultivated, actually
consists of two towns separated by
approximately five miles, the upper inhabited
by the Hinawi Bani Ruwahah and the lower
largely by the Ghafiri Siyabiyin.
توقيع : بنت النجادات

ما عاقني خجلي عن العليا و لا سدل الخمار بلمتي و نقابي
عن طي مضمار الرهان إذا اشتكت صعب السباق مطامح الركاب
بنت النجادات غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 18-08-2019, 11:59 PM   رقم المشاركة :[2]
معلومات العضو
رئيس مجلس الإدارة
 
الصورة الرمزية د ايمن زغروت
 
أحصائيات العضو

علم الدولة : علم الدولة Egypt

افتراضي


Thanks a lot sister Bint Alnajadat.
nice subject about Oman's trips history and its confidrations and parties.
توقيع : د ايمن زغروت
" تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الأَرْضِ وَلا فَسَادًا وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ " القصص/83.
د ايمن زغروت غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 19-08-2019, 01:26 PM   رقم المشاركة :[3]
معلومات العضو
عضو مجلس الأدارة, المشرفة العامة لمجالس قبائل الخليج العربي
 
أحصائيات العضو

علم الدولة : علم الدولة none

افتراضي

, Your are most welcome Dr Ayman

It can be seen here the Omani tribes are divided into two alliances which are (al- Gafiryah and al-Hinawiyah). Most people know that Gafiryah (Arab North, Adnani) faction is Sunni and Hinawiyah (Arab South, Qahtani) is Ibadi. Therefore, I want to focus more in this point, since most people do not know that both of the alliances have tribes from the two sects (Sunni and Ibadi) and tribes from the two orginis (Adnani and Qahtani) in equal.

According to the list of Omani tribes that is based on a British official compendium, Bani Ghafir tribe is Ibadi although North Arab and its stances has fluctuated from the Gafiri side to the Hinawi side and back. Another example is Kunud tribe, Kunud are Ibadi and they are in both alliances as well as Yal- Sa'd. Furthermore, al- Naim they are Sunni and in both alliances. Therefore, both of alliances consist of all the two sects and orgins equally and they play political battle not Ethnical or orginal battle as some people think.
توقيع : بنت النجادات

ما عاقني خجلي عن العليا و لا سدل الخمار بلمتي و نقابي
عن طي مضمار الرهان إذا اشتكت صعب السباق مطامح الركاب
بنت النجادات غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
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